The rainfall from January to March leading up to the 2015 Yala season was slightly lower than normal; the rain picked up in April and May exceeding normal values. Even though the rainfall remained below normal for the rest of the season through August, the water availability was suited for irrigated cultivation such as for rice. North-central region of the country mostly received above average rainfall while south western regions which usually receive high rainfall mostly received below average rainfall. During September the entire country received above average rainfall. Heavy rainfall was observed during last two weeks of September which caused floods in several areas of the country. An El Nino event which had developed to a borderline state for many months became a fully-fledged event by July 2015. Usually during an El Nino, the rainfall is deficient from January to March and June to August. Rainfall in October to December is above normal and in May too is usually above normal. In addition, a positive Indian Ocean Dipole event took place – what this means is that the Arabian sea is warmer than normal in relation to the Bay of Bengal seas surfaces near Sumatra. In positive dipole events, usually there is a weak drop in rainfall from June to August and a significant rise from September to November. So this years, rainfall is following close to the historical averages for a combined El Nino and positive Indian Ocean Dipole event. In addition to this the amplitude of the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) in 2015 has been a mixture of very high amplitude events and weak events. When the amplitude is higher than 1 the rainfall is enhanced or suppressed based on the location of the MJO wave. When it is less than 1 MJO is considered to be weak and there shall not be an impact on rainfall. During March- April and June- July the MJO was strong. During February, May, August- September the MJO was mostly weak. Severe drought conditions were not observed during the early Yala season because most parts of the country observed high rainfall in April and May. Significant below average rainfall was only observed in July 2015.